Among Ming -style furniture, a stool has a scientific name, called





The interpretation of the word “杌” in the ancient writing book “Jade” is “no branches.” The stools and chairs are all sitting. The difference is that the chair has a back, and the stool has no back.

Around the Wei, Jin and Northern and Southern Dynasties, the stools developed with the popularity of sitting. In the Song Dynasty, the image of the stool was very close to the image of a modern stool.


Stool images in the murals of Baisha Song Tomb


Picture from the “Bai Sha Song Tomb” version of the land

Compared with the chair, the structure of the stool is not so complicated, but even the simplest stool of the structure, each component is named.

Change from Niu Xiaoting’s “Ming-style Hardwood Furniture Manufacturing” Figure 11-34

Some friends may wonder: The Ming -style stools we see in museums and other collectors are very simple. How do other additional components come from and what are the names?

Don’t worry, we look at it part of us.

First of all, between the panel and the barrier of the stool, you can add a shrinking part–


Bad waist.


Don’t underestimate this subtle change. According to whether there is a waist, the stool can be divided into two categories:

No bundle waist stool


There is a waist stool


Partial part of the beam (left) and a part of the beam (right) of the waist

The structure of no bundle waist stool is born in the large wooden beams of ancient buildings. The legs and teeth of the stool are directly connected to the panel. On the edge of the panel, the position of the legs and teeth is significantly shrunk inward.

There is a waist -belling stool, and its structure is related to the roots, Sumi seats, and other relationships. Two kinds of stools can be described as “not a family.”

Northern Wei relief tower in Yungang Grottoes (line drawing)

The tower base uses Sumi seat, and the waist on the furniture has a shape.

In other components of the stool, what we can hear the most may be


It’s right. When I was still a child, I often stepped on the stool on a stool, playing with stools back and forth, and then taught by the parents: This is very dangerous! Easy to fall! Native

In addition to straight and straight, there can also be changes. For example, the two ends are low in the middle, and they look a bit like a humpback person lying on the ground. The people who call the humpback in the northern dialect are “Luo Pot”, so this shape is named “Luo Guo”.

The rosewood vines are generous, and the two -layer Luo pot is available between legs


The Palace Museum Collection (the official website of the Palace Museum)

If it is an oblique puppet, one end is connected to the leg leg, and the other end is connected to the bottom of the panel, it is called




Essence Overlords supported the panel, the shape was very similar to the overlord, so it was named.

The stool of the bulls 杌 枨 枨 枨 枨 枨 枨 枨 枨 枨 枨

Another kind of puppet, although it is also straight, is located at the lower end of the stool leg and close to the ground. This is called



“Tube feet”

Rosewood inlaid Nanmu Heart Fang Fang

The Palace Museum Tibetan (collection from the official website of the Palace Museum)


There is also a type of stool that cancels the head and tooth strips, improves the position of the pupa, and adds short columns or carved components directly to the 枨. Beijing craftsman said that such short columns are



(Or “dwarf”), carved components are

“Card Flower”

The rosewood square stool, the short column on the Luo pot is short and old


With the cubes of the card flower, there are two double -sets of rings on each side

You can also make some tricks at the place where you intersect. If the intersection of the four puppets is higher than the surface of the stool legs, and it seems to be wrapped in the stool legs, then this approach is called


“Do your legs”

Wrap your legs (left) and non -wrap (right) (right)

There are the most obvious differences in the appearance of the waist stool and the no -waist stool. In addition to the waist, the legs of the stool are the legs.

Most of them have waist stools, and the foot is horseshoe -shaped, known as

“Horseshoe foot”

Minghuanghuali has a waist and a long bench.

Another leg and foot form with a little curve, which is slightly s -shaped, called

“Three -curved legs”

Ming Huanghuali Three Bend legs Three Bend Leg Stools


There are also some beams of waist stools, and their legs and feet are obviously drumming out, and they are also drumming with teeth and teeth. This shape is called

“Drum Pengya”

Ming rosewood has a waist and drum, Pengya square stool, the Palace Museum is hidden


Part of the drum -legged Pengya -style furniture will also add a wooden frame that is directly contacted on the ground on the legs and feet, which is called



It plays the role of blocking moisture, increasing the area of ​​contact with the ground, and improving stability.

Rosewood drums Pengya with a mud stool, from “Beijing Cultural Relics Appreciation”

There are also a few stools. Although there is no waist, the legs and bars are not shrunk inwardly compared to the edge of the stool panel, and they are mostly horseshoe feet.

Such stools are not suitable for two types of beamless or waist. So known as


“Four -faced flat stool”

The rosewood four -sided square stool in the early Qing Dynasty

Picture from “Complete Works of Chinese Fine Arts Arts and Crafts, 11 Bamboo and Wood Dental Corner”

The above -mentioned stools, the stool surfaces are rectangular or square. In fact, in the Ming Dynasty painting works, there are still some round stools, elliptical stools, begonia stools, fan -style stools, etc., which are very rich in shape.


The hexagonal stool in the print of “Jin Ping Mei” in Ming Chongzhen

However, in the real objects handed down, these shapes of the stools can be called bright style and are relatively rare.

Ming Huanghuali Eight -footed round stool

Modern researchers’ naming methods on stools are very simple and rude.

Dynasties+Material+Whether to have waist+legs and feet+枨 form+stool shape

It is a more detailed stool name.

For example, the simplest “Ming Huanghuali pear has no waist and straight foot straight square stool”, as shown below:

The name in the figure below is the name “Minghuanghuali has a waist with a waist three bend legs and the long square stool.”

The picture below is called “Minghuanghuan pear without waist and legs, wraps the legs, and the old stool.”

In addition to the stools and chairs, the seats commonly used in the Ming Dynasty include sitting pier, intercourse and bench.

Sit on the pier

Commonly used outdoors, mostly stone or porcelain, and wood.

The Ming Dynasty Longquan Kiln green glaze hollow carving lion flower tattoo pier

The Palace Museum is collected (the picture is from “Forbidden City” July 2019)

Because the sitting pier is often covered with splendid fabrics as a cushion, it is also called “embroidered pier”. Because the drum nail pattern is often decorated on the pier, people also call it “drum pier”.


It is a stool with legs and feet, and our current name is “Maza”.

Huanghuali Xiaojiao


It is also easy to understand that because the stool surface is named long, it can also be subdivided into bar stools, duo stools, etc.

In the early Qing Dynasty, small benchmark stool

Reference materials:

Wang Shixiang’s “Ming -style Furniture Research”

Wang Shixiang’s “Ming -style Furniture Review” (The pictures of this article are not specified from this book)

Niu Xiaoting “Ming -style hardwood furniture manufacturing”